When I first started writing this blog, I knew Glee challenged many different stereotypes as well as incorporated tons of characters with subordinate identity markers. But I was unsure about the specific examples of social aspects that I was going to be able to find. After completing this blog I learned that several social aspects are key to the show. Without using discrimination the producers of Glee would not be able to express to their viewers the struggles that people who are homosexual or African American, for example, may face. While watching the current season I now pick up on these types of incidences and tend to tell my friends why the authors portrayed scenes in a particular way–something I was not doing in past seasons.

Throughout the blogging process having feedback from my classmates was really helpful. It caused me to realize in certain places where I was giving examples that explained the impacts of discrimination on a character, but never told how the character reacted. I was able to add some reactions into my paper that would not be there otherwise. Those reactions are important because they are proof of the influential act and they are what tells the views whether the impact was positive or negative.

I also enjoyed reading and commenting on other peoples blogs. I especially enjoyed Star’s blog on Katy Perry’s songs. I thought this was a really interesting topic becasue I never thought of the lyrics in an offensive way until Star pointed it out. Star commented back on several of my comments and I was glad to see that what I was saying was actually helping her. She also had a super unique perspective, from living in China that allowed me to look at situations differently.

Overall, I thought the blogging process worked. My favorite part about using a blog is that I was able to incorporate pictures and songs that represent and further explain what I was discussing; I would not have been able to do that in a paper. I did have some frustrations with the process though. By the end, I was very ready to be done and turn it since I had been working on it for 3 weeks. Normally a paper of mine would be written in 3 nights. I am interested though to see if this produces a better final product after spending so much time on it.  Lastly I struggled staying within the suggested blog length. I did not feel that 300 to 500 words was adequate enough to explain the concept and apply it. I did go back through and edit out some examples and I hope that my paper does not suffer because of it. I tried to write my blog so that it would flow from one post to another much like a paper would flow between paragraphs; I feel that this method is what added a good amount of the extra length.

To end my blog here a couple of my other favorite songs performed by the Glee Club!


Classroom Applications

In my future biology classroom there are two main goals that I will strive to teach my students through different types of lessons. The first, is that as the students advance in science they must learn how to separate what is scientific fact from the myths that are so easily created and believed by society. The second goal is for the students to learn how to work in groups since most science careers involve working in research teams as well as to be able to develop hypotheses based on experience and prior knowledge with that team.

These goals could be taught through giving a lesson on meiosis, the production of gamete cells, as well as the growth and development of babies. Day one would be spent discussing how babies develop and the differences in the developmental stages, which ultimately result in the sex of the baby. After learning about what biologically causes someone to be born a male or female, the second day can be spent exploring sex verses gender.

To begin the lesson, I would split the class up into laboratory groups, that consisted of both boys and girls. Their first task would be to as a team, develop a hypothesis on what they believe to be the definitions of sex and gender. Once every group had their definitions the class as a whole would come to a consensus on the two definitions. If I believe they reached the correct conclusion, I would ask the students a question similar to this: “now that you all understand what biologically determines the sex of a person, what traits (physical or emotional) do you think makes someone a man or a woman?” The lab groups would then generate lists of traits, making sure to state where those traits come from…in other words hormones, genes, peer pressure, the media, etc.  From there we would rejoin as a class to discuss the traits they all came up with and look for connections between types of traits and their sources, especially the traits that can be tied to social influences.

A couple of my follow up questions could include, “why are some traits determined by biology and why are others determined by society/peers?” “Did you originally think that biology influenced these traits?” “If society controls some of the traits that men and women express, what happens if someone chooses not to express them?”

After asking the last question I would show the class clips from multiple episodes of Glee where characters such as Bieste and Finn defy their gender norms and then get the students’ reactions. Next I would show clips of characters such as Quinn who strictly follows her norms. As a rap up the students would then talk with their groups about ways they both follow and defy their norms as well as come up with a final statement on the difference between sex and gender and how gender can effect people (examples could come from the clips…discrimination, privilege etc.)

By the end of day two, the students should have learned the biology behind sex and the development of babies as well as the main difference between sex and gender. Not only that but the students will have learned how society plays a role, in a subject matter that seems to be strictly biological, but in reality is not. And lastly I hope my students will have begun to recognize why they dress the way they do, or have certain hobbies. And that it is normal to defy your gender norms.


Characters with dominant identity markers are also present in Glee. When it comes to their identity markers, these dominant characters are often viewed as privileged.

To be privileged means that you have an item of value that is “denied to others simply because of the groups they belong to, rather than because of anything they’ve done or failed to do” (Johnson, Privilege pg 21).  In other words people who are privileged are given opportunities and advantages that tend to make their lives a little bit easier simply because of their gender or the color of their skin.

Unfortunately, privilege can be a rather complicated idea and often times it goes unnoticed by those who are given the advantages. As Wildman and Davis said, the characteristics held by and the advantages given to the privilege group often become what society see as the “norm” and because of this people do not see their opportunities as “special” or as “limited” to who receives them (pg 53). They either believe that they deserve them or that everyone else experiences them as well.

According to Johnson, privilege comes in two forms, as unearned advantages or conferred dominance. Unearned advantages arise when entitlements that all people should have are only received by a select group of people. This includes “feeling safe in public places” and having one’s opinion valued (Privilege pg 23). On the other hand, conferred dominance is when one group is given power over another. This one is more difficult to see because it is not about giving something to one group verse another, conferred dominance deals with feelings of superiority over other people.

An example of conferred dominance could be seen in a man telling his wife what to do around the house, but not listening when she asks him to do something. The notion of telling a wife what do is felt to be okay by a husband because they see themselves as superior since they are the man.

Both types of privilege can be seen in Glee. An unearned advantaged can be seen when Kurt no longer feels safe walking through the school hallways due to the fear that Karofsky will torment him or slam him into the closest locker. This fear is something that no one should have to feel. Because of this, the characters that are not effected by this feeling of fear (since they are of a dominant sexual orientation; heterosexual) have the privilege of feeling safe. This applies to Karofsky because even though he is actually homosexual he is perceived as straight, as well as Kurt’s step brother Finn. Neither of the characters have ever once thought that walking through the hallways could be frightening.

Conferred dominance in shown when Mike’s dad orders him to quit the Glee Club as well as the school musical in order to pull his grades up after receiving an “asian F”—an “A-“. Although I have not discussed this identity marker before, this event deals with age. Due to the fact that Mike’s dad is significantly older than him he feels superior and believes he has the right to tell Mike how to live his life even though MIke is 18 years old. (Yes I agree some of it probably had to do with the fact that he is his dad, but the example can definitely be applied here.)

Johnson, A.G. (2006). Privilege, oppression, and difference. In privilege, power, and difference, 2nd ed (pp. 12-40). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Johnson, A.G. (2006). How systems of privilege work. In privilege, power, and difference, 2nd ed (pp. 90-107). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Wildman, S.M. , & Davis, A.D. (2000). Language and silence: Making systems of privilege visible. In M. Adams, W.J. Blumenfeld, R. Castaneda, H.W. Hackman, M.L. Peters, and X. Zuniga (Eds.), Readings for diversity and social justice. New York: Routledge.


In my previous two posts I described the differences between dominant and subordinate groups based on identity markers. These groups are determined around what society deems as the “norm.” But there is a problem with having multiple groups; that inevitably one benefits more than the other. That group is most often the dominant one. And if the people who have dominant identity markers receive privileges, then the other people must be oppressed in order to keep the cycle rotating.

According to Young, “oppression designates the disadvantage and injustice some people suffer…because of everyday practices” (pg 36). In other words, people of subordinate identity markers tend to experience hardships and are put at a “disadvantage” by not receiving as many opportunities as the dominant group.

Those who are privileged need the oppressed to stay in their current position so that they can keep being handed advantages. I believe that one way dominant group members keep others oppressed is by pointing out that society sees them as unimportant or less valuable. In order to do so, people use discrimination.

Discrimination is the unjust treatment of someone, which results due to something about them being “different” or “unacceptable to society.” As Pincus describes, there are three different forms of discrimination, individual, institutional and structural. All of these different forms can be seen within Glee, where discrimination is used quite often to negatively impact people with subordinate identify markers, such as being female (gender) or homosexual (sexual orientation).

The first type is individual discrimination, which are actions taken by an individual person or group of persons that are meant to differentiate from/harm someone from another group (pg 31). An example that can be seen in Glee is from a very recent episode where Santana is “outed” as a lesbian by a group of politicians out to ruin Coach Sue Sylvester chances of becoming a congressional member. This is individual discrimination because a “group” of politicians target Santana as a way to ultimately affect Sue. This was intentional because the politicians were well aware it would negatively harm Santana. Which it did, as she is seen running out of Sue’s office crying. The politicians were suggesting that her sexuality was “wrong” and that Sue should not allow her to be a member of the Cheerios since Santana is considered “different”.

Another example of individual discrimination based on gender happened when the high school football team made the decision not to play in a game because they were upset that their new coach was Bieste who is a woman. Again a “group” of people target Bieste showing their lack of belief in her abilities and harming her emotionally all because she was female and they did not approve.

The second form of discrimination is Institutional. Institutional discrimination is when the policies of dominant institutions are purposely set up in such a way as to negatively impact or harm someone from a non-dominant group (pg 31). This type of discrimination can be seen when Arty who is physically disabled tries to play on the football team. He is not even given the chance to try out and told that it is policy. This policy intentionally prevents people who are physically disabled from playing. Arty eventually convinces the coach to play in a game and Arty shows that even though he is in a wheelchair he can still play football.

FInally, structural discrimination is the last form listed by Pincus. Structural discrimination is when the policies of dominant institutions are meant to be neutral, but in reality they end up harming someone from a minority group (pg 31). This final type is shown in Glee from a previous example I have given. I talked earlier about Kurt being teased by Karofsky and when he went to the principle he said there was nothing he could do because policy states he must be threatened before the school can take action. This was meant to be a policy that benefits both the accused bully and the bullied, but it ultimately harms Kurt because it allows Karofsky to keep tormenting him.

Allowing any form of discrimination to take place should be unacceptable especially in schools where students do not have a choice in who they interact with each and everyday. No matter someone’s identity marker, he or she should be treated with respect and given fair opportunities.

Young, I.M. (2000). Five faces of oppression. In Adams et al. (Eds.) Readings for diversity and social justice (pp. 35-49). New York: Routledge.

Pincus, F.L. (2000). Discriminating comes in many forms: Individual, institutional, and structural. In Adams et al. (Eds.). Readings for diversity and social justice (pp. 31-35). New York: Routledge


When talking about issues such as gender and sexual orientation within Glee, I am referring to a broader topic called identity markers. Identity markers are traits and characteristics about people that they are often unable to change, and because of them they tend to be put at a disadvantage or an advantage. These traits include, race, social class, language, religion, and of course gender and sexual orientation. Based on what you identify as, you are either labeled as part of the dominant group (privileged) or the subordinate group (oppressed).

If you were to list off an individual’s identity markers it would sound something like this, a white male, who speaks English, is of the upper-middle class and is homosexual.  Now if you notice this partuclar person has characteristics that put them in both the dominant group for some identity markers and in the subordinate group for others. This is the idea of intersectionality— where most people do not consist of identity markers that are all dominant or subordinate, but rather a mix of the two.

Intersectionality can be seen in Glee. Arty is a white (dominant) male (dominant), who is also physically disabled (subordinate). On the other hand, Tina is a Korean (subordiante) female (subordinate) who is heterosexual (dominant). Both of these characters have identity markers from both groups and different ratios of the two.


Although different forms of intersectionality can be found in Glee, I would like to address the intersectionality specifically between gender and sexual orientation and how one identity marker influences the other, which happens as a result of intersectionality.

Lets start with Kurt.

Kurt is a homosexual male. Being homosexual puts him in a subordinate group since heterosexuality is the “norm” and therefore dominant, while on the other hand being male assigns him to the dominant gender group. For Kurt his subordinate identity marker has greatly affected how people perceive his dominant one. Because Kurt is gay he is seen as almost “less of a male.” This refers back to the names Coach Sylvester calls him, such as “Lady” and “Porcelain.” These names suggest that he is feminine or even more female-like than male. Another example of how his sexual orientation has affected his gender is seen when Kurt tries out for the school musical, West Side Story. Kurt tries to get the leading male role, but is denied the position because the directors do not see him as having the needed “manly” traits and believe that the audience will also not see him in this way.

There is also another character in Glee who has a non-dominant sexual orientation other. Santana identifies as a lesbian. In this case Santana has two subordinate identity markers. During the show, Santana has struggled coming to terms with her sexuality because her of gender. Santana is a rather strong female, who is see as “popular.” She is part of the cheer team and is known for “getting around” with the guys. Due to the way she is perceived as a female, I believe she is afraid to be up front with her sexual orientation. If Santana were to openly acknowledge that she is homosexual, she might be seen as “less of a female,” something that is very important to her. This could jeopardize her position as a cheerleader and affect how her other female friends treat her.

I thought this picture below was interesting because Santana also identifies as Lebanese, another subordinate identity marker. She is wearing this t-shirt for a song the Glee Club puts on called “Born this Way,” where each member embraces something they are insecure about. Rather than putting down her true insecurity, which is the fact that she is a lesbian, she chooses to write lebanese since it is less threatening to her status as a woman. It is as if she is taking a step in the right direction since the words closely resemble each other, but cannot fully accept her sexuality.

Glee works to show, that no matter who you are, whether that is part of a dominant or subordinate group , you should accept yourself and be proud of what makes you different.

This is the song referred to above: “Born this Way.”

Sexual Orientation

Just as Glee talks about issues dealing with gender, it also portrays experiences that students have based on their sexual orientation.

When talking about sexual orientation there are a couple of key terms that are important to understand. The first is heterosexism, according to Friend (1998) heterosexism is the “privileging of heterosexuality” over other sexual orientations such as homosexuality (pg 139). The second key term is homophobia, which is the “fear and discomfort” of homosexuality. This can include the fear of homosexuality within others as well as within one’s self (pg 141).

The next topic to discuss, is the issue of “coming out.” I am sure most of you have heard someone say, “I think he is still in the closet” or “I just wish he would come out already.” People say these types of things when they believe that someone if homosexual. These phrases develop from the idea of heterosexism, where the “norm” is to be heterosexual. But if that is the “norm,” then people who do not identify as heterosexual must tell their families or “come out” about being homosexual in order to express themselves (pg 140). This can be very difficult for a lot of people due to the risk of rejection (Blumenfeld 2000).

Glee works to prove that rejection is not always the answer and that kids should feel comfortable talking about their sexual orientation. In the show the character who most heavily deals with sexual orientation is Kurt, who identifies as a gay man. Throughout the seasons Kurt struggles to tell his father that he is gay and is viciously tormented by students and even staff at McKinley.

When Kurt finally tells his father that he is gay, his dad simply laughs and says he has known for a long time and will always love him no matter what. Kurt’s dad later becomes his support system, and works to keep close “family ties” and fight homophobia within Kurt’s school.

Not only is the issue of “coming out” discussed in Glee, but homophobia is one of the biggest reoccurring events related to sexual orientation. As I said earlier, homophobia can be the fear in one’s own homosexuality. Kurt is tormented by a character named Dave Karofsky, who in fact is gay himself but is struggling to come to terms with it. Because of his fear of his own sexuality, Karofsky takes his frustrations out on Kurt, who in reality is probably the one person who would actually understand him.

Continuing on with homophobia in Glee, Blumenfeld (2000) talks about the four different types of homophobia. There is personal, interpersonal, institutional, and cultural homophobia. Both interpersonal and institutional homophobia can also be seen in Glee.  Interpersonal homophobia is when the personal homophobia (one’s opinion) leads to “active discrimination” through name calling, teasing, or physical violence (pg 268-270). When Coach Sue Sylvester calls Kurt names such as “Lady,” “porcelain,” or “tickle-me dough face” she is showcasing interpersonal homophobia. These names suggest that Kurt is feminine and delicate, which can be insulting because he is not a woman but rather a man who is simply attracted to other men.

The second type, institutional homophobia, is the discrimination of homosexual people through the government, educational system as well as other organizations (pg 268-270). This can be seen through McKinley’s school rules. When Kurt was being tormented by Karofsky he went to the principle to see how to stop it. The principle said there was nothing he could do since Kurt had no hard evidence and that Karofsky was not threatening him, but rather calling him names (not to be mention the physical violence, which the principle seemed to ignore). These rules enforce the oppression of homosexual students by allowing the negative behavior to continue.

While heterosexism and homophobia take place within McKinley High many of Kurt’s friends such as Rachel, Mercedes and his step-brother Finn do support Kurt and his sexual orientation.This support, shows viewers that there is nothing wrong with having a sexual orientation other than being heterosexual.

Blumenfeld, W. J. (2000). How homophobia hurts everyone, (pp. 267-275). In Adams et al. (Eds.), Readings for social diversity and social justice. New York: Routledge Press.

Friend, R. A. (1998). Heterosexism, homophobia, and the culture of schooling. In S. Books (Ed.) Invisible children in the society and its schools (pp. 137-166). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


The next time you walk down the street, take the time to observe the people around you. How they walk, how they dress, how they act and ask yourself if their behavior and outside characteristics match up with whether they are male or female.

I assume, most of the time it will. This is because gender has been drilled into us ever since we were born (Lorber 2000). Gender refers to the way we are suppose to dress, act, and talk based on our sex. It is a socially constructed mechanism used to differentiate between male and female (Lorber 2000). To give you a better understanding, if you saw a baby with earrings in both ears, most people would conclude that it was a girl. But if you were told that your friends named their child Jacob you would most likely assume that it was a boy.

The assumptions people make to determine one’s gender is based on what society deems feminine or masculine. If a world existed where there was no gender, girls would be able to play football and boys could wear colors such as pink without being questioned or judged. But the reality is that because gender does exist people are expected to follow the norm, and “any possible alternatives are virtually unthinkable” (pg 207).

Gender is a rather prevalent issue in the t.v. show Glee and several characters are showcased defying the gender norms. Coach Sue Sylvester and Coach Bieste both have what society would call “masculine traits.” They do not wear make-up, or dress in “girly” clothes such as skirts and dresses. Instead they wear track suits and have loud opinionated personalities–traits society would deem unacceptable to have as a woman.  Coach Bieste unlike Sue (most likely because Sue is rather scary) is picked on, yes even as an adult, and treated differently because the students and staff do not see her as a woman. As Lorber (2000) would say, she is “missing” her “gender signs” and that is why people feel the need to bully her; they are “uncomfortable” that she does not fit into their view of her gender (pg 204).

But Glee works to show that no matter how Coach Bieste acts or appears she is still a woman and has feelings and desires just as other women do. For example, when Bieste gets asked out on a date, she cries over being treated so kindly. Crying is typically seen as a feminine quality.

It is not only the woman in Glee who challenge gender norms. Finn is the high school quarterback who enjoys singing and performing in the school musicals. He is pushed around by some of his fellow teammates for participating in such a “feminine activity.” But Finn does not let that stop him.

Lastly, in a more recent episode of Glee, Brittany decides to run for school president. At McKinley High School the student body president has yet to be a girl. Brittany decides that it is time to show the power within being female and performs this song…breaking her gender “norm” of lacking the traits needed to be a leader (Sadker and Zittleman 2010).

Lorber, J. (2000). ‘Night to his day’: The social construction of gender. In Adams et al. (Eds.), Readings for diversity and social justice. New York: Routledge Press.

Sadker, D. & Zittleman, K. (2010). Gender bias: From colonial America to today’s classroom. . In Banks J. , Banks C. A. McGee, (Eds.) Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives. 7th ed. (pp. 137-153). New York: John Wiley.

Mediavine Inc. (n.d.). Quinn Fabray quotes. In TV fanatic. Retrieved November 12, 2011, from